CMI Blog

the latest from cmi speaker managment

Posts by Clint Pulver

Why Managers Should Always Be Recruiting by Clint Pulver

By Clint Pulver | Oct 18, 2021 | Comments Off

Who is Clint Pulver? Watch video to learn more about his incredible and inspiring keynote experience that he brings to every company, every audience with irresistible style.

Maybe this has happened to you: your business is unexpectedly short-staffed, so you put out a hasty job posting. It gets shared around online and the résumés flood in. But—catch 22—because you’re overworked, you don’t have time to truly assess those candidates. So, you go through them quickly and settle on the one who seems like the best of the bunch.

It might feel like a relief to check that box, but what you’ve actually done is create a bigger problem down the road. Why? You’ve put the vacancy first, not the hire. The pressure of needing a warm body has led you to get your recruitment priorities backwards, and now you have people on your team who may not fit, may not thrive, and may even be undermining your workforce.

Hey, I get it! Being understaffed can feel like an emergency—everyone is rushed, details are getting missed, no one is happy, and customers might even be walking out the door. But if you skip the work of choosing the right person, you could be taking that temporary state of emergency and turning it into your business as usual.

So here are three words to remember if you don’t want your short-term staffing demands to dictate your long-term success: Always. Be. Recruiting.

4 Strategies Great Companies Use to Actively Recruit

In all of our workplace analysis, the most innovative organizations we’ve come across are proactive. What does that mean? It means they are always looking for good employees. Always! They never let a deadline or vacancy take control of who joins their team—and they don’t let a crisis define who they become.

Remember: recruiting is not hiring. You don’t have to end up managing a team of 1,000 with a payroll for 100. Recruiting is about keeping an eye out for the best people, whether or not you plan to hire anyone in the immediate horizon.

What does that look like in practice? Here are the top four strategies we’ve seen great companies use to identify and attract the workforce they want.

1. Keep a standing invitation on your careers page

Job postings are by nature reactive. Yes, they are a necessary outreach tool, but they aren’t your only tool. Proactive companies keep a permanent notice on their careers page that invites people to get in touch or send in a résumé—and they keep it there whether or not there is an active opening. If a promising person approaches them who looks like they’d be a great fit, they keep in touch, start a conversation, invite them in for a coffee meeting or a tour. And, when a job opening does come up, they take the initiative to reach out and invite them to apply.

2. Build relationships with talented people

The more connected and active you are in your industry, the better the chances that you’ll cross paths with amazing people. Go to industry conferences and events, go to job fairs, look for opportunities to speak about your industry at schools and training institutions. And when you meet someone who could be a good fit for your team someday—whether that’s a young student starting out, an intern, a great contractor, or even a colleague from a different company—don’t let that opportunity pass you by! Keep in touch, make yourself of service, and build a relationship so that you’re top of mind when they’re looking for something new.

3. Maintain a welcoming company culture

If I was a young person interested in your industry and I visited your business, what would I see? How welcoming is your company—your website, your culture, your branding, even your physical space? A welcoming company culture is about more than friendliness: it’s openness, where outsiders feel invited, and can see who you are and how you work. It’s accessibility (in all senses of the word). It’s both diversity and unity. And it’s visibility, through social media, LinkedIn posts, outreach, and online and real-world events.

4. Have an employee referral program

Successful managers understand that their existing employees are their best pipeline for reaching more talent. Like is attracted to like, and people who are smart, talented, educated, curious, empathetic, driven, friendly, or even simply experienced in a given field tend to hang out with others with the same qualities. An in-house referral program that encourages and rewards employees who recommend potential hires will help you tap into the social and professional networks of the employees you already have. And the more great people you bring on, the more great people you’ll have access to.

Challenge: Conduct a Recruiting Audit of Your Company

So how ready is your business to welcome the people you want working for you? This week, take some time to look at your company with the eyes of an outsider, and to consider questions like these:

  • What does our website and careers page look like? Does it read like a “sorry no vacancy” sign, or is it a welcome mat and a window into our culture? If a talented person came across our site when we didn’t have an active opening, how likely would they be to consider us as a potential career option?
  • How visible and open is our culture? When someone comes onto our sales floor or into our workspace, what kind of image do we present as a team? Who would feel like they belong here—and who might we be excluding?
  • How many of our employees would recommend us to their friends—and what motivation do they have to do so? What have I done in the past when I met someone who could be a future asset to our company? Did I call it a missed opportunity because the timing wasn’t right for one of us? Or did I follow up and start building a relationship? What will I do next time?
  • What is my organization doing to tap into the social and professional networks of our best employees?

Your answers to these questions can reveal what you need to improve to set yourself up to hire right the next time you need someone. Look at what you’re doing, analyze the results, and think about what you can change to be more proactive.

And when you do have a job opening, I can’t say it enough: if you want a team that works, do not settle. It may not be first, or the third, or even the fiftieth candidate who applies, but if you’re attuned to what you want, the right person will come along. And the more you protect your culture by careful hiring, the more attractive you’ll become to the kind of person who wants to work in that culture. And, soon enough, the right people will be coming to you.

 

Clint-Pulver-Undercover-Millenial-Speaker

How to Use “Designed Moments” to Earn Employee Loyalty by Clint Pulver

By Clint Pulver | Sep 30, 2021 | Comments Off

The employees we’ve interviewed who loved where they work had a very specific quality in common: they trusted their managers.

One of the biggest misconceptions we come across in our undercover workplace research is the idea that employees have to earn the trust of their managers. If you are a leader who still views loyalty this way, it’s time to flip your script. Because you can’t expect trust if you haven’t earned it yourself.

The employees we’ve interviewed who loved where they work had a very specific quality in common: they trusted their managers. They knew they could ask for help in a crisis; they knew they could express a worry or a complaint without being punished for it somewhere down the line. And because these employees trusted their leaders—meaning they didn’t have to perform under the weight of anxiety or resentment—they felt free to return that same loyalty.

And we’ve found in our research that they return it by the boatload.

Creating Employee Trust Through Designed Moments

Earning that level of trust from your staff is not about making a big show of what a great pal you are, or what a super cool boss you can be. It’s about little, everyday actions—I call them “designed moments.” These types of moments are the #1 thing that come up when we ask employees to tell us about a manager who inspired unbreakable loyalty.

What is a designed moment? It’s simply a moment of attention and consideration—one that stands out and feels like the opposite of the daily routine. Moments like these can have a sense of wonder to them, giving an employee a deep sense of being noticed, supported, and even cared for. Think of them as a personalized action you can take to turn an ordinary workday into a powerful memory.

Sounds pretty incredible, right? But, it’s more subtle than you think.

Here are just a few real-world examples of designed moments that made a huge impact on the employees we’ve interviewed:

• Inviting the team out for a surprise lunch
• Sending a six-month supply of diapers to an employee who had a new baby
• Launching a GoFundMe campaign for an employee who was having a health crisis
• Picking up the phone and checking in on how an employee was doing after an ambitious project fell through
• “Calling out” an employee’s contribution to a success, and offering a heartfelt thanks
• Recognizing an employee’s specific talents, and the future the manager saw in them

Get the idea? Simple, thoughtful actions, made regularly over time with each employee.

Building a Bank Account of Trust

Do these moments seem small? Well, they are. But it’s their very smallness that packs such a powerful degree of surprise and meaning for the employees who receive them. That’s the amazing thing about designed moments: it isn’t about staging a huge event, like paying for college or sending your employees on a vacation. You’re not holding a lottery, with random big winners. Instead, what you’re doing is making regular deposits of trust.

It’s like building a bank account of loyalty with each of your employees. And, just like with a bank account, when you deposit a lot—even if it’s slowly, in small amounts—you can ask for more in return.

Over time, each of your designed moments—each investment you make in care, attention, and praise—will move your employees closer to a relationship founded in trust, connection, and, yes, even love. But you can only reap those returns if you keep making your deposits.

And I mean with each employee, as often as you can.

Challenge: Create a Designed Moment

There is no recipe for a designed moment—and that’s because they have to be genuine, and—this is the most important thing—they have to be personalized both to the situation and to the employee. So, to determine the best way to design a moment for a given employee, you have to invest your time and interest in that person, and get to know them as an individual: their talents, goals, hopes, dreams, interests—and disinterests, too.

Here’s where to start: with one single employee. Pick someone—perhaps a person you’ve been struggling to connect with—and try to design one moment that will have meaning for that person. Is there a big life event on the horizon you could acknowledge or support? Something they have accomplished at work to celebrate? What kind of action could you take that might startle them out of their daily grind—in a really good way?

Can’t think of anything? That’s a clue you need to start a little further back. Invest some time in getting to know that employee better. Work alongside them. Ask about their lives. Pay a little more attention to how their workday is going. This groundwork will give you better insight into what might make an impact for that individual.

Remember: deposits of trust aren’t about making a big show. They’re about simply being there for your employees, both in the literal and metaphorical sense.

It’s Time to Take Responsibility for Trust

If you want your people to truly commit to you, you first have to earn it. Yes, winning that trust—building those individual bank accounts—takes effort and time (sometimes lots of time). But once you have loyalty, it’s contagious—and it won’t be long before you’ve created a workplace culture in which your whole team has each other’s back.

So, design those impact moments, invest in that loyalty, and keep making those small, everyday deposits of trust. Because if your people trust you, they will give their all for you.

 

Clint-Pulver-Undercover-Millenial-Speaker

The 4 Types of Managers By Clint Pulver by Clint Pulver

By Clint Pulver | Aug 09, 2021 | Comments Off

How to Assess Your Leadership on the Standards–Connection Spectrum

When you interview as many employees as we have in the Undercover Millennial program, you get a lot of insight about what creates a workplace people love. But the super interesting thing happens when we analyze that insight and compare it to a leader’s results. When we do that, two factors become so consistently linked with success that you can actually use them as a framework for assessing managerial performance.

And what are those factors? Standards and Connection.

Now, standards are your expectations for your employees’ behavior and performance, and connection is the level of empathy, recognition, time, and advocacy you offer them. In the conversations we’ve had with employees, we’ve heard consistent descriptions of four specific types of management—and each can be placed on a spectrum of these two elements. And not only that, each of those four styles can actually be linked to specific behaviors among those leaders’ employees.

So, which type of Manager are you?

The Removed Manager

The Buddy Manager

The Controlled Manager

The Mentor Manager

THE REMOVED MANAGER

Low Standards, Low Connection
First let’s look at the Removed Manager. This person leads with low standards, and low connection.

They’re completely removed from their organization and from the people they lead—we’ve seen this separation manifest emotionally, and even physically. They’re hard to find! Maybe they’re in their office, maybe in the back room—maybe they’re not even there. And when you do find them, it can seem like they’re just ticking boxes, and that they don’t really care.

OUTCOME - Disengagement

If hearing this feels uncomfortable, this might be you! And that means you’re probably struggling to connect with and lead your people. Maybe you’re feeling burned out—or maybe you’re even having difficulty connecting with your own boss. But whatever the underlying reason, that disengagement you feel is likely showing up in your people as well.

THE BUDDY MANAGER

Low Standards, High Connection

You get the Buddy Manager—hooray, a buddy, a friend! Yeah, sounds fun—everybody likes a buddy, and, hey, wouldn’t it be great to have a job where you can get away with anything. But hold on: what’s that going to do to your sense of respect for your employer? And how likely are you to feel like you’re building a career that has real meaning? While employees with a Buddy Manager might feel cared for, that’s not actually a good thing if they also feel a lack of real leadership.

If approval and friendship mean more to you than guiding or developing, you might recognize yourself here. You probably bend over backwards to make your team happy in the moment, but you fail to balance that with consistent expectations. And the outcome? Entitlement, complacency, and a lack of professional growth.

OUTCOME – Entitlement

An even bigger risk with Buddy Management is treating some employees differently, making exceptions and granting favors because you like them, or, worse, because you want them to like you. Soon you have some people seeing how far they can stretch your authority, and others feeling resentful, ignored, or shut out.

I’m not saying you shouldn’t have a great relationship with your employees, because you absolutely should! But if friendship becomes more important than what’s best for your employee’s development and performance, your company is going nowhere¬—and the same goes for your employee.

But here’s the tricky balance—the flipside to the Buddy Manager is the Controlling Manager. You’ll recognize yourself here if you have a “my way or the highway” style, with little collaboration and a whole lot of consequences.

THE CONTROLLING MANAGER

High Standards, Low Connection

Do you find that you’re always writing your people up or dressing them down? If you do, you might think you’re just pushing for higher performance, but the real result can be just as bad as with the Buddy Manager. Only in this case it takes the form of rebellion, bitterness, and a different kind of rule breaking—we’ve seen Controlling Management lead to less productivity, more theft, and even intentional mistakes made as a way to express defiance.

OUTCOME – Rebellion

And that doesn’t even begin to include the negative results of what doesn’t happen under this style of management: and that’s collaboration, innovation, and the sense of connection your customers get when they enter a business where people love where they work.

Ah, but now we reach the place where these two elements come together! This is leadership that combines high levels of standards with high levels of connection. This is Mentor Management, and it has without fail reaped the best performance results across all the workplaces we’ve researched.

THE MENTOR MANAGER

High Standards, High Connection

Employees who work for a Mentor Manager feel loyalty, show respect, and engage better with their work. You’re operating as a Mentor Manager when you provide your employees with the standards and expectations they need to feel secure in their job, and at the same time you’re spending time with them—creating meaningful moments and building trust simply by getting to know them. And the result? Respect, and loyalty.

OUTCOME – Respect & Loyalty

Now here’s the big question: for each of those managers, how much of their style do you see in yourself? If you see similarities, does that make you feel good, or uncomfortable? Who could you emulate to help yourself increase the level of standards and connection you are offering your people?

What could you do to increase the levels of both empathy and expectations in your workplace? Your title might make you a boss, but it’s your people who decide if you’re a mentor. And that’s where you want to operate as a leader.

 

Clint-Pulver-Undercover-Millenial-Speaker

How to Determine the Current Status of your Employees by Clint Pulver

By Clint Pulver | Jun 16, 2021 | Comments Off

The 3 Questions You Need to Ask Your Employees Right Now

So here’s kind of a sad story? One day a talented employee gets hired at a business, and she’s full of excitement about the future. But over the weeks and months that promise doesn’t pan out, and she starts to feel stuckFinally, she’s had enough—she hands in her notice. And on her last day, her manager invites her into his office, sits her down, and asks her a question that comes way too late. He asks her, What could we have done to keep you here?”

Tragic, right? I see it all the time, and it breaks my heart! The absolute worst moment you could ask an employee what they want in their life is at an exit interview. It’s like a hospital keeping its heart monitor in the morgue. The best companies we’ve worked with are checking their employee’s vitals all the time, before they get tired of their job. And they don’t just do it with stuffy performance reviews that are more about what the company wants than what the employee wants. They do it with a status interview. This is one of the best practices I’ve seen for consistently maintaining an accurate measure of how your employee is feeling and what they need to perform at their best. And it has three specific elements that might seem in conflict but aren’t: it’s informal, it’s in-the-moment, and it’s comprehensively planned and targeted.

The Status Interview

  • Informal
  • In-the-moment
  • Planned and targeted

Done well, a status interview is not about the company; it’s about the employee: the focus is on being an advocate, and asking what they need and what you can do for them. You need to get the information that will help you plan a route forward, and we’ve found that the most effective way to do that is with three very specific questions: “What can we do to keep you here?”“What’s getting in the way of you reaching your maximum success?”; and “How can I help you get where you want to go?”

The Status Interview Questions

1. “What can we do to keep you here?”

2. “What’s getting in the way of you reaching your maximum success?”

3. “How can I help you get where you want to go?” 

Each one of these questions achieves a different goal, and has to be approached in a specific way. Let’s take the first one: “What can we do to keep you here.”

This is how you acknowledge your employee’s value: that you appreciate what they bring every day. Set them at ease by pairing this question with some vocal praise, like, “Hey, you’re really important to this company, and I want to make sure that you’ve got what you need to be successful. What can we do to keep you here?

1. “What can we do to keep you here?”

  • Inspires loyalty and trust and value
  • Pair with vocal praise 

Asking this question before there’s a problem inspires loyalty and shows them they matter—and adding in that praise lets them know right away that this isn’t a conversation about a problem.

Then that next question shows your employee that you’re invested in boosting their skills and getting them to their goals: “What’s getting in the way of your maximum success?” Here’s what you’re really asking: What skills do you want to learn? How’s your schedule working out? Is anything going on with your health or your family that might be causing you stress? And, most importantly, what can I do as your manager to connect you with resources and get you past those obstacles?

2. “What’s getting in the way of you reaching your maximum success?”

  • Shows support for an employee’s goals
  • Pair with offers of help, training, or resources 
  • Then, you cap it off with the kicker: “How can I help you get where you want to go.”

 As a leader and a mentor, your job is to connect your people to their dreams, even if those dreams have nothing to do with their work. Asking an employee how you can help them get anywhere they want to go in life demonstrates to them that you are their advocateShowing support for an employee’s personal projects actively taps into their excitement. It will re-engage that person, so they can bring that energy and incorporate it into their work. And the beauty of knowing what your employee wants is that you can play to those strengths, and find opportunities within the company to that will move them further toward those dreams.

 3. “How can I help you get where you want to go?”

  • Demonstrates advocacy
  • Pair with help in finding opportunity

But there’s one more critical element to the status interview that you cannot forget—and that’s a relationship that can bear the weight of truth. Your employees need to know that they can tell you what they’re really feeling without risking any anger or retribution from you. You can’t create that kind of strength and confidence just in that moment—you build it over time, through all those little daily deposits of trust that you’re making with your people. It’s true that some employees will never tell you the complete truth, but even then, I promise you that it will have so much meaning that you at least asked, and that you asked authentically and with open intentions. Just remember that this is not your moment to criticize or bring up performance issues. This is support—a check-up, a heart monitor. You’re looking to create that healthy stability, and you’re taking action if you spot any sign that things aren’t great.

So today I want you to look at your schedule for the month ahead, and slot in time for a status interview with every one of your employees. Ask those three questions, pair them with praise, and figure out how you can support their dreams now, even if it seems like everything’s fine. Because an employee’s last day on the job is absolutely the wrong time to find out what could have done to keep them in your company.

 

Clint-Pulver-Undercover-Millenial-Speaker

Clint Pulver- 2021 and the To Don't List

By Clint Pulver | Jan 06, 2021 | Comments Off

2020 has been the year of the dumpster fire. I don't know about you, but I'm ready to start a new chapter. It's been crazy. It's been a wild time. I don't think ever in my life have I experienced such difficult turbulence.

IMG_9679

I remember when I was in flight school, and we were flying over a mountain range, and we hit some of the roughest air. I mean, massive turbulence was shaking the plane, I hit my head on the cockpit. My safety belt wasn't on tight enough. It was rough. And I remember pushing the throttle to get through the turbulence faster. I wanted to get over the mountain range. I wanted to get through everything and get to smoother air. And I was still in school, so thankfully, my instructor was with me, and he grabbed the throttle and pulled it back.

He looked at me, and he said, "You never speed up when you're in turbulence."

Every airplane has an optimum turbulence limitation. And, you know, it's like hitting a speed bump at 80 miles an hour versus eight miles an hour. There's a big difference in what that's going to do. Sometimes, when we start a new year or a new chapter, right, it's all New Year's resolutions. Its goals, expectations, and vision statements are set, and we get busy creating a lot of To-Do's. But I think there's power in slowing down.


130740947_3407409892816489_2704941331401873255_n
There's power and maintaining and setting your course and realizing that it's not always in the things that we do, but it's sometimes in the things that we don't do, where we find the greatest growth and success. Leonardo da Vinci said that simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.

When the astronauts first went up into space, they found out that a ballpoint pen would not work in space. There's no gravity, so they couldn't write. So NASA and other engineers spent hundreds of hours and thousands of dollars trying to figure out how they could help astronauts write-in space. And they finally figured it out and developed this really cool pen that writes in space. But what do you think the astronauts did until they could figure that problem out? They used a pencil. Right? Simplicity is sometimes it is the ultimate sophistication.

In my years of research, and what we found is that, you know, good leaders, good entrepreneurs, business professionals, for the most part, you know what you need to do. But the great ones know what they need to stop doing. So this year, maybe you know, instead of writing the To-Do list, perhaps you write the To Don't list, and you focus on simplifying your life, focusing on the essentials.

As we do that, we realize that there's more to life than just speeding up. Sometimes the greatest thing we can do is simply slow down, especially in turbulent times. I wish you a Happy New Year, an excellent 2021 and continued success!

preview-lightbox-CMI_blogCTA_Pulver

 

The Emmy goes to...CLINT PULVER!!

By Clint Pulver | Sep 22, 2020 | Comments Off

 

"Hello, and welcome to the Pandemmys!"

That's how host Jimmy Kimmel kicked off The Primetime Emmy Awards on Sunday September 20, 2020 in Los Angeles. Covid19 has drastically changed how award shows air, but as they say in show business, the show must go on!

So The Rocky Mountain Emmy Awards, a division of the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences, went virtual too.

From ABC's American Housewife, Daniel DiMaggio announced Clint Pulver's nomination for Clint Pulver: You're Not a Problem...and he won!

Join us in congratulating EMMY WINNER Clint Pulver!

 

Click for next steps

Help your sales soar! New Virtual Keynote from Clint Pulver

By Clint Pulver | Aug 19, 2020 | Comments Off

 

How do you help your sales team feel more confident, deliver powerful customer experiences, and navigate uncertain times? With an innovative shift in mindset and proven processes for creating customer connectivity, trust, and loyalty.

That’s where sales keynote speaker and retention expert Clint Pulver comes in. In this timely and important message, Clint helps sales professionals unlock the power of “mentoring customers” rather than “closing them” in a sales conversation.

Read more about Clint's virtual experiences here!

Click for next steps

Clint Pulver Outlines How To Grow Sales Now

By Clint Pulver | Jul 08, 2020 | Comments Off

In a recent virtual keynote for Lifewave, Clint Pulver tailors his message to salespeople and outlines how the best sellers operate. Learn some practical tips for how to sell better from this short video.

 

lifewave-clint and phil-insta-june 30

Click for next steps

How to make your employees feel heard and understood during crises

By Clint Pulver | May 13, 2020 | Comments Off
Vital status meetig video-Clint Pulver-cmi edit

Something I think is important right now, especially in the chaos of COVID-19, is a word that I call “status”. This word comes from my past life in the medical field. Before my professional speaking career, I spent five years in operating rooms working as an orthopedic consultant helping physicians and the medical team to operate on patients. One of the words that was always used was the word “status”. The doctor would often ask “what's the status of the patient” or “can I get a status update”. What they were asking for is the vitals of the patient. Every human being has vitals. These are the things that make sure we're healthy, moving, stable and alive. Those include your heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and respiratory rate. If you don't have one of those things, you're not doing very well. We were constantly monitoring the status of our patients. 

In the medical field, the status or the vital signs of the patient would determine treatment. If there's something wrong with the heart rate or the body temperature, that would tell us how to treat the patient to make sure we've achieved a good status. Then you repeat. You recheck the vitals. Then we treat again. You repeat this process until healthy stability is maintained long term. Now more than ever we need good managers and leaders to conduct what I call status interviews with their people.

I think it's easy right now to get caught up in the big problems. You're worrying about finances, investments, expenses, current operations, strategies. But your strategies are only as good as your people. We cannot forget about the power of our people. During this time of chaos where most of us are working in the virtual world, the well being of everybody needs to be looked after. Employees still need to be seen, heard and understood. The goal of the status interview is an intimate one-on-one setting where you reach out to your employees and say “I just want to set up a meeting to catch up and see how you're doing”. 

To be clear, this is not a time to talk about performance. This is not a time to talk about the goals of the company or the vision statement, or the agenda of what we need to do to keep operations flowing. This is simply an opportunity for you as the manager or the leader to create a connection. It is an opportunity for you to really check the vital signs of your people. 

The 4 Best Questions to use during a Status Meeting

I want to be sensitive to our current situation. Below are a few examples of questions that only certain businesses might find useful right now.

The first question of a great status interview is: 

  • What can I do as your manager to keep you here?

The second question is: 

  • What's increased your sense of happiness the most at work? What's working for you right now?

The third question is:

  • What is causing the most amount of stress and worry right now for you at work?

Lastly:

  • How can I make things easier?

Right now, you have a great opportunity to make sure that everybody is being seen and heard. In doing that, we maintain healthy stability long term with our people. We become a more empowered workforce, and empowered workforces always create greater productivity. We become an organization that truly becomes the best for the world in a time when it's needed the most.

Click for next steps

Virtual Inspiration

By Clint Pulver | Apr 16, 2020 | Comments Off
Watch this video from Clint Pulver for inspiration that makes you feel as if you’re sitting in the 1st row at a live event.
 
Stay tuned for more to come from Clint!
 

 

Click for next steps